Jahangir’s tomb in Lahore, Pakistan.
When the Mughals arrived and began to assert themselves at the Muslim socio-political scene, the phenomenon of Muslim funerary architecture was more than a thousand years old. They thus inherited a legacy which was instigated and fomented by a variety of historical factors and through the contributions of a great many protagonists from a number of corners of the Muslim vast domain and from virtually all strata of its composite social configuration. It was extremely difficult for anybody to concoct and apply any completely novel ideas and genera, both at conceptual and physical planes. The most conceivable scenario for the Mughals, therefore, was to be ingenious followers and under some unprecedented religious and social circumstances and conditions to bring the ubiquitous funerary architectural trends to some higher level of particularly artistic and architectural refinement and exquisiteness, something like what happened -- to a much lesser extent though -- to the funerary architectural legacies of the Mughals’ contemporaries, the Osmanlis and Safavids.Read more: Contextualizing the Royal Funerary Architecture of the Mughals
The Taj Mahal in Agra, India.
The Mughals were a Muslim dynasty of Turkic-Mongol origin that ruled most of the northern Indian subcontinent from the early 10th AH/ 16th CE to the mid-12th AH/ 18th CE century, after which it continued to exist as a considerably reduced and increasingly powerless entity until the mid-13th AH/ 19th CE century. At the height of their power in the 11th AH/ 17th CE century, the Mughals were in command of most of the subcontinent. “The Mughal dynasty was notable for its more than two centuries of effective rule over much of India, for the ability of its rulers, who through seven generations maintained a record of unusual talent, and for its administrative organization. A further distinction was the attempt of the Mughals, who were Muslims, to integrate Hindus and Muslims into a united Indian state.”Read more: The Mughals and Monumental Royal Mausoleums
ICABE: International Conference on Architecture and Build Environment 7th-8th Novemeber
and ICUDBE: 3rd International conference on Universal Design in the built Environment 11th-12th November
Read more: ICABE and ICUDBE 2013 (Conferences )
The term al-wasatiyyah is derived from an Arabic word “wasat” which means middle, fair, just, moderate, milieu and setting. The word in its different forms is used in several contexts in the Qur’an, all the word forms revolving around similar linguistic meanings. Allah says: “Thus, have We made of you an Ummah (Community) justly balanced (wasatan), that ye might be witnesses over the nations, and the Messenger a witness over yourselves…” (al-Baqarah 143).Read more: Al-Wasatiyyah (Moderation) as an Agenda of the Ummah